ectopic pregnancy 2023 What are its symptoms and risks ?

one of the cases in which the fertilized egg attaches somewhere outside the uterine cavity. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is about 2% of all pregnancies.

What is the difference between a normal pregnancy and an ectopic pregnancy?

In a normal pregnancy, ovulation occurs when the ovary releases an egg into the fallopian tube. When the egg meets a sperm, the fertilized egg moves into the uterus and continues to grow over the next nine months.

In one case out of 50 pregnancies, the fertilized egg remains in the fallopian tube. This condition is called an ectopic pregnancy. In rare cases, the fertilized egg attaches to one of the ovaries or to other organs inside the abdomen. Therefore, an ectopic pregnancy is an emergency medical condition that requires immediate treatment.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy

  • The most common symptoms of an ectopi pregnancy include:
  • delayed menstruation.
  • Heavy bleeding in the vagina (Vagina).
  • Pain in the lower parts of the abdomen.
  • Weakness or fainting due to blood loss.
  • These symptoms in a woman of fertile age may raise suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy, as the cause of the symptoms must be investigated.

In many cases, the symptoms of an ectopi pregnancy are not clear and conclusive, as only part of them appear with low degrees of pain, which makes the diagnosis process difficult.

Causes and risk factors for ectopic pregnancy


The reason for the development of an ectopic pregnancy is due to damage to the suppression of the fallopian tubes caused by infections, especially those transmitted through sexual relations, or from previous surgeries.

Complications of an ectopic pregnancy

The fate of an ectopi pregnancy cannot be predicted, and many things must be taken into account, as follows:

The fetus may grow until the trumpet is no longer able to contain it, and a rupture occurs in the trumpet wall when it exits into the peritoneum, which causes bleeding inside the peritoneum in addition to abdominal pain, and the pregnancy may stop developing and the body absorbs it to disappear completely.

When the diagnosis is confirmed with an ectopic pregnancy, one must prepare for intense monitoring to avoid aggravation of the condition, and surgical intervention may be required. In easy cases, monitoring alone can be sufficient.
After an ectopi pregnancy, the probability of a new pregnancy occurring in the uterus is 80-88%, while the probability of another ectopic pregnancy is 4.2-5%.

Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

An ectopi pregnancy is diagnosed in several ways, as follows:

Ultrasound examination

Ultrasound imaging is done on the basis of some repeated measurements of the level of the pregnancy hormone (Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin – hCG) in the blood.

A pregnancy in the womb is diagnosed when the hCG levels are more than 1,500 mmol/ml, and if this is not the case, there is a suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy in the fallopian tube.

Hormone check

An ectopi pregnancy can be  diagnosed  through this examination, as progesterone levels are lower in an ectopic pregnancy, which is an additional indicator of an ectopic pregnancy.

Treatment of ectopic pregnancy

Treatment for ectopi pregnancy is chosen according to the seriousness of the case, as in some of the following cases:

There is a need for a surgical procedure by means of  laparoscopy  (Laparoscopy); To remove or remove the pregnancy from the fallopian tube, if the pregnancy is accompanied by bleeding in the peritoneal cavity, or if the pregnancy hormone level is more than 3,500 mm/ml.
Methotrexate injections are needed for women with a small tubal pregnancy, a low hCG level and no abdominal bleeding.

Prevention of ectopi.. pregnancy

In fact, there are no clear ways to prevent an ectopic pregnancy, but the following can be followed:

Receiving appropriate treatment in the event of any infections in the reproductive system, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, as it improves the chances of obtaining a successful pregnancy in the future.
Consult the attending physician about the recommended waiting period until they try to conceive again in the event of experiencing a previous pregnancy outside the pregnancy, as  some doctors recommend waiting for a period of 3-6 months.


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